The processes and tools used to track/control/prevent/correct secure access to critical assets (e.g., information, resources, systems) according to the formal determination of which persons, computers, and applications have a need and right to access these critical assets based on an approved classification.
[csf.tools Note: For more information on the Critical Security Controls, visit the Center for Internet Security.]
Segment the network based on the label or classification level of the information stored on the servers, locate all sensitive information on separated Virtual Local Area Networks (VLANs).
Enable firewall filtering between VLANs to ensure that only authorized systems are able to communicate with other systems necessary to fulfill their specific responsibilities.
Disable all workstation-to-workstation communication to limit an attacker's ability to move laterally and compromise neighboring systems, through technologies such as Private VLANs or micro segmentation.
Encrypt all sensitive information in transit.
Utilize an active discovery tool to identify all sensitive information stored, processed, or transmitted by the organization's technology systems, including those located on-site or at a remote service provider, and update the organization's sensitive information inventory.
Protect all information stored on systems with file system, network share, claims, application, or database specific access control lists. These controls will enforce the principle that only authorized individuals should have access to the information based on their need to access the information as a part of their responsibilities.
Use an automated tool, such as host-based Data Loss Prevention, to enforce access controls to data even when data is copied off a system.
Encrypt all sensitive information at rest using a tool that requires a secondary authentication mechanism not integrated into the operating system, in order to access the information.
Enforce detailed audit logging for access to sensitive data or changes to sensitive data (utilizing tools such as File Integrity Monitoring or Security Information and Event Monitoring).