Develop processes and technical controls to identify, classify, securely handle, retain, and dispose of data.
[csf.tools Note: For more information on the Critical Security Controls, visit the Center for Internet Security.]
Establish and maintain a data management process. In the process, address data sensitivity, data owner, handling of data, data retention limits, and disposal requirements, based on sensitivity and retention standards for the enterprise. Review and update documentation annually, or when significant enterprise changes occur that could impact this Safeguard.
Establish and maintain a data inventory, based on the enterprise's data management process. Inventory sensitive data, at a minimum. Review and update inventory annually, at a minimum, with a priority on sensitive data.
Configure data access control lists based on a user's need to know. Apply data access control lists, also known as access permissions, to local and remote file systems, databases, and applications.
Retain data according to the enterprise's data management process. Data retention must include both minimum and maximum timelines.
Securely dispose of data as outlined in the enterprise's data management process. Ensure the disposal process and method are commensurate with the data sensitivity.
Encrypt data on end-user devices containing sensitive data. Example implementations can include: Windows BitLocker®, Apple FileVault®, Linux® dm-crypt.
Establish and maintain an overall data classification scheme for the enterprise. Enterprises may use labels, such as “Sensitive,” “Confidential,” and “Public,” and classify their data according to those labels. Review and update the classification scheme annually, or when significant enterprise changes occur that could impact this Safeguard.
Document data flows. Data flow documentation includes service provider data flows and should be based on the enterprise's data management process. Review and update documentation annually, or when significant enterprise changes occur that could impact this Safeguard.
Encrypt data on removable media.
Encrypt sensitive data in transit. Example implementations can include: Transport Layer Security (TLS) and Open Secure Shell (OpenSSH).
Encrypt sensitive data at rest on servers, applications, and databases containing sensitive data. Storage-layer encryption, also known as server-side encryption, meets the minimum requirement of this Safeguard. Additional encryption methods may include application-layer encryption, also known as client-side encryption, where access to the data storage device(s) does not permit access to the plain-text data.
Segment data processing and storage based on the sensitivity of the data. Do not process sensitive data on enterprise assets intended for lower sensitivity data.
Implement an automated tool, such as a host-based Data Loss Prevention (DLP) tool to identify all sensitive data stored, processed, or transmitted through enterprise assets, including those located onsite or at a remote service provider, and update the enterprise's sensitive data inventory.
Log sensitive data access, including modification and disposal.